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Basic methods in imaging of micro and nanostructures with AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy)



Principle

Approaching a sharp silicon tip mounted on a cantilever to a sample surface leads to an atomic scale interaction. The result is a bend of the cantilever which is detected by a laser. In static mode the resulting deflection is used to investigate the topography of the ...

 
Детали

Продукт No: P2538000

Determination of the molar mass of a liquid



Principle

The molar mass of a liquid is to be determined by evaporating a liquid at constant temperature and pressure, and measuring the volume of  vapour  formed using a calibrated gas syringe.

Benefits

  • For both demonstration and student experiments
  • Simple ...
 
Детали

Продукт No: P3010501

Determining the molecular weight of a polymer from intrinsic viscosity measurements



Principle

The viscosity of a liquid is effectively determined by the strength of the intermolecular attractive forces. In the case of solutions, the viscosity of the solvent can alter significantly depending on the type and concentration of the solute. Due to their size, ...

 
Детали

Продукт No: P3010601

Condensation of gases through an increase of pressure and through cooling

Principle

Gases are condensing when they are cooled and at high pressure. In this experiment butane is condensed by cooling it to ca. -15 °C. In the second part of the experiment butane is condensed by compressing it.

Benefits

  • Compact setup
  • Perfect as ...
 
Детали

Продукт No: P3011400

Determination of the enthalpy of vaporisation of liquids

Principle

The vaporisation of a liquid occurs with heat absorption. To determine the enthalpy of vaporisation, a known mass of the liquid which is to be investigated is vaporised in a special vaporisation vessel in a current of air. The quantity of heat absorbed, which corresponds to the ...

 
Детали

Продукт No: P3020461

Partial molar volumes

Principle

Due to intermolecular interactions, the total volume measured when two real liquids (e.g. ethanol and water) are mixed deviates from the total volume calculated from the individual volumes of the two liquids (volume contraction). To describe this non-ideal behaviour in the ...

...

 
Детали

Продукт No: P3020501

Determination of the mixing enthalpy of binary fluid mixtu

Principle

When two miscible liquids are mixed, a positive or negative heat effect occurs, which is caused by the interactions between the molecules. This heat effect is dependent on the mixing ratio. The integral mixing enthalpy and the differential molar mixing enthalpy can be determined ...

...

 
Детали

Продукт No: P3020661

Determination of the hydration enthalpy of an electrolyte (solution enthalpy) with Cobra4

Principle

When a solid electrolyte dissolves in water, a positive or negative heat effect occurs as a result of the destruction of the crystal lattice and the formation of hydrated ions. The enthalpy of hydration of copper sulphate can be calculated from the different heats of reaction ...

...

 
Детали

Продукт No: P3020761

Determination of the enthalpy of neutralisation with Cobra4

Principle

When a strong acid is neutralised with a strong base in dilute solution, the same amount of heat is always released. If the reaction takes place under isobaric conditions, this heat is known as the enthalpy of neutralisation. The chemical reaction which generates this heat is ...

...

 
Детали

Продукт No: P3020861

Determination of the melting enthalpy of a pure substance

Principle

When a solid melts, energy is required for the destruction of the crystal lattice. A substance whose melting point lies slightly below room temperature is first cooled until it solidifies and then melted in a calorimeter. The melting enthalpy is calculated from the decrease in ...

...

 
Детали

Продукт No: P3020961

Boiling point elevation - Raoult's law with Cobra4

Principle

Raoult's law states: The vapour pressure of an ideal solution is directly dependent on the vapour pressure of each chemical component and the mole fraction of the component present in the solution.
That's why the boiling point of a solution is always higher than that of the pure ...

 
Детали

Продукт No: P3021060

Determination of the heating values of solid and gaseous fuels in a horizontal calorimeter

Benefits
  • Glass jacket system easily expandable
  • Illustrative experimental setup
 
Детали

Продукт No: P3021301

Determination of the heat of formation of water

Principle

Standard molar enthalpies of formation ΔBHΦ are important compiled thermodynamics tabulation quantities for calculating standard enthalpies of reaction for any arbitrary reaction. They are defined as the heat of reaction occurring in the direct formation of one mole of ...

...

 
Детали

Продукт No: P3021501

Determination of the heat of formation for CO2 and CO (Hess'

Principle

The standard molar enthalpies of formation ΔBHΦ are important compiled thermodynamic tabulation quantities for calculating standard enthalpies of reaction for any arbitrary reaction. They are defined as the heat of reaction occurring in the direct formation of one mole ...

...

 
Детали

Продукт No: P3021601

Hess's law with Cobra4

Principle

The standard molar enthalpies of formation ΔBHΦ are important compiled thermodynamic tabulation quantities for calculating standard enthalpies of reaction for any arbitrary reaction. They are defined as the heat of reaction occurring in the direct formation of one mole ...

 
Детали

Продукт No: P3021661

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